How Far is Too Far? | The Age of A.I.

to YouTube Original Stages,

once home to Howard Hughes’s
Spruce Goose assembly hangar,

and home to much of
the first Iron Man,

filmed 12 years ago.

Many happy memories here.

And speaking
of taking a look back…


It’s advancing faster

and taking less time
to be widely adopted

than ever before,

like as in
it took roughly 10,000 years

to go from writing
to printing press,

but only about 500 more
to get to email.

Now it seems
we’re at the dawn of a new age,

the age of A.I…

Artificial Intelligence.

Please define.

[automated voice speaking]

Uh-huh, okay.
There you have it.

What does it mean?
I don’t know.

Tons of folks
are working on it, right?

Most people don’t know
that much about it,

and of course,
there’s no shortage

of data or opinions.

Anyway, I’ve heard it said

that the best way
to learn about a subject

is to teach it,

but to level with ya,

I have a wildly
incomplete education…

Not in my day job,

where I’ve been A.I.-adjacent
for over a decade.

Anyway, I figured now
would be as good a time as any

to catch up
on the state of things

this emerging phenomenon.

My sense of it
is it kind of feels like

Pandora’s box,
maybe… ish?

Much of my understanding
on this topic

has come from sci-fi stories,

which usually depict us

heading toward Shangri-La
or dystopia.

Like most things,

I suspect the truth is probably
somewhere in the middle.

Now, along the way,

we’ll demystify
some common misconceptions

about things we thought
we understood,
but probably don’t,

terms such as

“machine learning,”

“computer vision”
and “Big Data,”

they will be
conveniently unpacked

to help us feel like
we know what we’re doing,


By the way, Pandora’s box…

wasn’t a box.


was a clay jar.

How about that?


A.I. is teaching the machine,

and the machine
becoming smart.

Each time we create
a more powerful technology,

we create a bigger lever
for changing the world.

Autonomous driving started.

It’s an extraordinary time,

one of unprecedented
change and possibility.

To help us understand
what’s happening,

this series
will look at innovators

pushing the boundaries
of A.I…

No, stop!

[Downey] …and how
their groundbreaking work

is profoundly impacting
our lives…

Yay! [laughing]

…and the world around us.

In this episode, we’ll meet
two different visionaries

exploring identity, creativity,

and collaboration
between humans and machines.

Intelligence used to be
the province of only humans,

but it no longer is.

We don’t program the machines.
They learn by themselves.

Mm. Ah. That’s good.

All right.

My background’s always been
a mixture of art and science.

I ended up doing a PhD
in bioengineering,

then I ended up
in the film industry,

working on King Kong
to Avatar,

simulating faces.

I’d got to a point
in my career

where I’d been, you know,

lucky enough to win
a couple of Academy Awards,

so I thought,
“Okay, what happens

if we actually tried to bring
those characters to life,

that actually
you could interact with?”

[toddler crying]

Baby… Ooh.

[toddler fusses]

What can you see?

So “Baby X” is a lifelike
simulation of a toddler.

Hey. Are you
excited to be here?

She’s actually seeing me
through the web camera,

she’s listening
through the microphone.

Woo… yeah.

Baby X is about
exploring the nature

of how would we build
a digital consciousness,

if it’s possible?

We don’t know
if it’s possible,

but we’re chipping away
at that problem.

Hey, Baby. Hey.

“Problem” is an understatement

for what
Mark’s chipping away at.

His vision of the future

is one where
human and machine cooperate,

and the best way
to achieve that, he thinks,

is to make A.I.
as life-like as possible.


[Baby X giggling]

[Downey] Which is why he began
where most life begins…

a baby…

after his own daughter.

So if we start
revealing her layers,

she’s driven by virtual muscles,

and the virtual muscles,
in turn,

are driven by a virtual brain.

Now, these are
radically simplified models

from the real thing,

but nevertheless,

they’re models that
we can explore how they work,

because we have
a real template that exists,

the human brain.

So, these are all driven
by neural networks.

[Downey] “Neural network”

is a virtual,
much simpler version

of the human brain.

The brain is the most
complex system in our body.

It’s got 85 billion neurons,
each of which fire non-stop,

receiving, processing,
and sending information.

Baby X’s brain
is nowhere near as complex,

but that’s the goal.

Instead of neurons,
it’s got nodes.

The more the nodes
are exposed to,

the more they learn.

[Sagar] What we’ve learned
is it’s very hard to build
a digital brain,

but where we want to go
with it

is we’re trying to build
a human-like A.I.

which has
a flexible intelligence

that can relate to people.

I think
the best kind of systems

are when humans and A.I.
work together.

One of the biggest
misconceptions of A.I.

is that there is
a super-intelligent being,

or what we call
a generalized A.I.,

that knows all, can do all,

smarter than all of us
put together.

That is a total misconception.

A.I. is built on us.

A.I. is mimicking
our thought processes.

A.I. is basically
an emulation of us.

Like visionaries before him,
Mark’s a dreamer.

The current state
of his moonshot, however,

is a little more earthbound.

[computer] Thank you
for granting access

to your microphone.
It’s good to hear you.

[Downey] Today, most avatars

are basically glorified
customer-service reps.

[service avatar]
Rest assured,

your health
is my primary concern.

[Downey] They can answer
simple questions

and give scripted responses.

I love
helping our customers,

so I’m keen to keep learning.

[Downey] Beats dealing with
automated phonelines for sure,

but it’s a far cry
from Mark’s ultimate vision…

[Sagar] Hey, Baby. Hey.

[Downey] …to create avatars
that can actually learn,

interpret, and interact
with the world around them,

like a real human.

What’s this?


So we’re starting
to get a spider forming
in her mind here,

she’s starting to associate
the word with the image.

So, Baby… spider.



Good! Okay, what’s this?

[Baby] Spider.

No. This is a duck.

Look at the duck.

[Baby] Duck.

[Sagar] Yeah.

Baby X uses a type of A.I.
called “object recognition.”

it’s how a computer sees…

how it identifies an object,
like a spider,

or tells the difference
between a spider and a duck.

It’s something
that you and I do naturally…

…but machines, like Baby X,
need to learn from scratch,

by basically sifting
through enormous piles of data

to search for patterns,

so that eventually,
it can drive a car,

or pick out a criminal
in a crowded photograph,

or tell the difference
between me and… that guy.

But now I’m gonna tell her
that spiders are scary.

Look out!
Rawr! Scary spider! Rawr!


Hey, hey. Don’t cry.
It’s okay. Hey…

[Baby crying]

Hey, it’s okay.

Now she’s responding emotionally
to me as well,

so we’ve gone all the way down

to virtual neurotransmitters,
hormones, and so forth,

so Baby X has a stress system.

If I give her a fright…


So we’ll see basically

some noradrenaline
was released then,

and she’s gone into a much more
vigilant state of mind.

What Mark is working on

is known as
“affective computing,”

A.I. that interprets
and simulates human emotion.

I believe that machines
are gonna interact with humans

just the way
we interact with one another,

through perception,
through conversation.

So as A.I.
continues to become mainstream,

it needs
to really understand humans,

and so we want
to build emotion A.I.

that enables machines
to have empathy.

Hello, Pepa.

-[man] Hello.



Oh, dear.

-We can do this forever.
-I know we could. [laughs]

[Howard] They’ve showed,
for example,

older adults who have A.I. aides
at their nursing homes,

they are happier

with a robot that emotes
and is social

than having no one there.

That’s really the enhancement
of human relationships.

[Sagar] Hey…

You know, human cooperation

is the most powerful force
in human history, right?

Human cooperation
with intelligent machines

will define
the next era of history.

  Deep Learning: What is it good for?

Using a machine
which is connected

with the rest of the world
through the Internet,

that can work as a creative,
collaborative partner?

That’s unbelievable.

Jessica. Jessica.
One more time, one more time.

We’re gonna go
from just the first two verses,

and the first two verses

will take us
to three minutes, okay?

I love music.

The whole concept of music
is collaboration,

so if there are some people
that see me as a musician,

that’s awesome.

I first
became interested in A.I.

because A.I.
is a very fruitful place
to create in.

It’s a new tool for us.

I dream,
and make my dreams reality,

whether the dream is a song

or the dream
is an avatar of myself.

One time, a friend was like,
“Well, you can’t clone yourself.

You can’t be
in two places at once.”

That’s the promise
of the avatar.

I left it over there.

All right, here we go.

[Sagar] So, you’re about
to enter the Matrix.

I’m gonna sort of direct you
through just a bunch of poses.

The team from Soul Machines

is here to create
a digital avatar of myself.

They had to put me
in this huge contraption

with these crazy lights.

What do you want me to do?

Your face is an instrument.

All the wrinkles on the face
is like a signature,

so we want to get

the highest-quality digital
model of you that we can.


[Sagar] Yeah, that’s perfect.
Okay, go.

[rapid shutters snapping]

[Sagar] So we have to capture
all the textures of their face.

The geometry of their face…

Big, gnashy teeth.

How their face deforms

to form the different
facial expressions.

And how about a kiss?

You could do…

With my eyes closed?

‘Cause I don’t kiss
with my eyes open.

Every once in a while,
I peek.

[cameras snapping]

I wanted to have

a digital avatar
around the idea of Idatity,

and that’s the marriage
of my data and my identity.

Everyone’s concerned
about, like, identity theft.

everybody’s giving away
all their data for free

on the Internet.

I’m what I like
and what I don’t like,

I’m where I go,
I’m who I know.

I’m what I search.
I am my thumbprint.

I am my data.
That’s who I am.

You pull your eyelids down
like that.

We want to get that… yup.

When I’m on Instagram
and I’m on Google,

I’m actually programming
those algorithms
to better understand me.


In the future,
my avatar’s gonna be
doing all that stuff,

because I’m gonna program it.

Get entertained through it,
get information through it,

and you feel like

you’re having a FaceTime
with an intelligent entity.

“Yo, check out this link.”

“Oh, wow, that’s crazy.”

“Yo, can you post that
on my Twitter?”



All right,
I’m the Soul Machines
lead audio engineer.

we’ll be able to build
an A.I. version of your voice.

After creating Will’s look,

then we now
have to create his voice.

For that, we actually have
to capture a lot of samples

about how Will speaks,

and that’s actually
quite a challenging process.

-Shall we kick off?
-Yeah, let’s kick off.

-A’ight, boo, here we go.

I’m Will,
and I’m happy to meet you.

I’m here to bring
technology to life,

and let’s talk about
Artificial Intelligence.

Oops. Really? Whoa.

That’s dope!

So there’s so many ways
of saying “dope,” bro.

Yeah, yeah.

Now, how realistic
is it going to be?

This will sound like you.

The sentences
can be divided up into parts

so that we can create words

and build sentences,
like LEGO blocks.

It will sound
exactly like you.

Well, maybe we don’t want
to have it too accurate.

So you don’t freak people out,
maybe I don’t want it accurate.

Maybe, there should be
some type of…

“That’s the A.I.,”

’cause this
is all new ground.

-Like, we’ve…

we are in an intersection
of a place

that we’ve never been
in society,

where people have to determine

what’s real
and what’s not.

[Downey] While Mark
jets back to New Zealand

to try to create
Will’s digital doppelganger,

Will’s left waiting,
and wondering…

can Mark pull this off?

What does it mean

to have a lifelike
avatar of you?

A digital replicant
of yourself?

Is that a good idea?

How far is too far?

[Domingos] We’ve been
collaborating with machines

since the dawn of technology.

I mean, even today,

in some sense,
we are all cyborgs already.

For example,

you use OKCupid
to find a date,

and then you use Yelp
to decide where to go, you know,

what restaurant to go to,

and then
you start driving your car,

but there’s a GPS system that
actually tells you where to go.

So the human
and the machine decision-making

are very tightly interwoven,

and I think this will
only increase as we go forward.

Human collaboration
with intelligent machines…

A different musician
in a different town

with a different approach

is giving the same problem
a shot.

[Gil Weinberg]
People are concerned

about A.I. replacing humans,

and I think
it is not only

not going to replace humans,
it’s going to enhance humans.

I’m Gil Weinberg.
I’m the founding director

of Georgia Tech Center
for Music Technology.

[plays piano]


In my lab, we are trying
to create the new technologies

that will explore
new ways to be expressive…

to be creative…

it’s a marimba-playing robot.

[playing marimba]

What it does
is listen to humans playing,

and it can improvise.

Shimon is
our first robotic musician

that has the ability
to find patterns,

so, machine learning.

Machine learning

is the ability
to find patterns in data.

So, for example,
if we feed Shimon
Miles Davis,

it will try to see

what note is he likely to play
after what note,

and once it finds its patterns,
it can start to manipulate it,

and I can have the robot
playing in a style

that maybe is 30% Miles Davis,
30% Bach,

30% Madonna,
and 10% my own,

and create morphing of music
that humans would never create.

[band playing tune]

Gil’s groundbreaking work

in artificial creativity
and musical expression

has been performed
by symphonies
around the world…

…but his innovation

also caught the attention
of another musician…


[Downey] …a guy who
unexpectedly pushed Gil

beyond enhancing robots

to augmenting humans.

[Weinberg] I met Jason Barnes
about six years ago,

when I was just about finishing
one phase of developing Shimon,

and I was starting to think,
“What’s next?”

[Barnes] I got my first
drum kit when I was 15,
on Christmas,

and when I lost my limb,
I was 22,

so I was kind of used
to having two limbs.

I started trying
to fabricate prosthetics

to try
and get me back on the kit,

which eventually led me
to working and collaborating
with Georgia Tech.

[playing drums]

[Weinberg] He told me
that he lost his arm,

he was devastated,
he was depressed,

music was his life,

and he said,
“I saw that you develop
robotic musicians.

Can you use some
of the technology that you have

in order to allow me
to play again like I used to?”

So that’s the prosthetic arm
that we built for Jason.

When he came to us,

he just wanted to be able
to use sensors here

so he can hold the stick
tight or loose.

I suggested “Let’s do that,
but also,

let’s have two sticks.

One stick can operate
with a mind of its own,

understanding the music
and improvising.

One stick can operate based on
what you tell it
with your muscle,

and also, each one of the sticks
can play 20 hertz…

…faster than any humans,

and together,
they can create polyrhythm,

create all kind of textures
that humans cannot create.”

All right.
I think we’re ready to play.

[all playing tune]

[Downey] In some ways,
the robotic drum arm

allows Jason to play
better than he ever has,

but it still lacks
the true function,

or feeling,
of a human hand.

[Weinberg] They don’t provide

the kind of dexterity
and subtle control

that would
really allow anything.

[Downey] This revelation

drove Gil
to his next innovation…

the Skywalker Hand.

Inspired by Luke Skywalker
from Star Wars,

  Elon Musk talks about Artificial Intelligence, Neuralink

and created in collaboration
with Jason,

the revolutionary tech

brings what was once
the realm of sci-fi

a little closer to our galaxy.

[Barnes] This is just like
a 3D-printed hand

that you can, like,
download the files online.

[Downey] Currently,
most advanced prosthetic hands

can’t even thumbs-up
or flip you the bird.

They can only open or grip,

using all five fingers
at once.

Most of the prosthetics
that are available
on the market nowadays,

um, actually use
EMG technology,

which stands
for “electromyography,”

and essentially what it does
is there are two sensors

that make contact
with my residual limb,

and they pick up electrical
signals from the muscles…

So again, when I flex
and extend my residual limb,

it will open
and close the hand,

um, and I can rotate as well,

but the problem with EMG

is it’s a very vague
electrical signal,
so zero to 100%.

It’s not very accurate at all.

The Skywalker Hand
actually uses ultrasound tech.

Ultrasound provides an image,

and you can see
everything that’s going on
inside of the arm.

[Downey] Ultrasound
uses high-frequency sound waves

to capture live images
from inside the body.

As Jason flexes his muscles

to move each
of his missing fingers,

ultrasound generates
live images
that visualize his intention.

The A.I.
then uses machine learning

to predict patterns,

letting a man who’s lost
one of his hands

move all five of his fingers

even if he’s as unpredictable
as Keith Moon.

The work that Gil is doing

is really important.

Gil comes from
a non-engineering background,

which means that his technology

and the way
he thinks about robotics

is actually quite different

than, say, the way
I would think about it,

since I come from
an engineering background.

And the commonality is
that we want to design robots

to really impact
and make a difference
in the world.

[Weinberg] We were able
to create a proof of concept

with Jason Barnes.

Once we discovered that
we can do this with ultrasound,

immediately I looked at,

“Hey, let’s try
to help more people.”

[Jay Schneider] That’s okay,
just leave me hanging,
holding it.

It’s not heavy or anything.

[Barnes] It’s safe,
if you want to slide it back…

No, no.
I’m messing with you.

So I met Jason Barnes

at an event called
“Lucky Fin Weekend.”

They’re a foundation that deals
with limb difference.

There we go.

-Ah, all right.
-And it’s out.

Do you ever work on your car

without the hook?

Not really. It’s just way easier
and efficient for me to…

The hook, the hook really
trips me out, though, man.

When I lost my hand,

it was close to 30 years ago,

and prosthetics were
kind of stuck in the Dark Ages.

[rock drums and bass playing]

In general, they didn’t
really do a whole lot,

and even if they moved,

they seemed to be more passive
than actually worthwhile to use.

I don’t like to talk
about my accident,

because I don’t feel
it defines me.

The narrative
on limb-different people

has been the accident.

“This is what happened,
and these are these sad things,”

and it becomes
inspiration porn.

For me, for example, right,
if I do something,

I have to, like,
smash it out of the park,

because otherwise I feel like
there’s gonna be this,

“Oh, well, he did it good enough
because he’s missing his hand.”

-Yeah, yeah.
-And I’m like, “F that!”

Like, I want to…
I’m gonna be as good or better
than somebody with two hands

doing whatever I’m doing,
you know?

at this point in my life,

don’t really seem like something
I would want or need.

Manual robotic prosthetics

have not been adopted well.

Amputees try them,

and then they don’t
continue to use them.

[Barnes] Yeah, man,
you stoked to check out the lab?

Yeah, yeah, for sure.

Right now,
I’m the only amputee
that’s ever used

the Skywalker Arm before.

Did you have…
were you right-handed?

No, I was born
left-handed, actually.

Oh, you lucky bastard.

-Yeah, I know, right?
-I was right-handed.

[Barnes] It was
extremely important

to get as many different people
as we can in there,

including other amputees.

It’s hard to find people
that are amputees in general,

and then, like,
upper-extremity amputees
is the next thing,

and then finding people
who are willing,

to step out
of their comfort zone

-and then do this.

[Schneider] When I met Jason,

I found it really interesting
that we had a lot in common,

because we were both into cars,
we were both into music.

-Hi, Gil.
-Hey. What’s up?

-Jason. Nice to meet ya.
-Nice meeting you.

He’s a step or two
ahead of me
with the technology stuff.

The way this hand works
is it essentially picks up

the ultrasound signals
from my residual limb,

so when I move my index finger,

it’ll move my index…


Wow, for the first time,

prosthetics are finally
getting to the point

where they’re getting
pretty close

to actual human hand.

You know, it got me excited.
I was like,

“This is the type of thing
that I’ve been waiting for.”

If I was ever going
to try one again,

this would be the type of stuff
that I would want to check out.

When I move my thumb…


I know from experience

that it’s not always
working perfectly.

It’s very interesting for me
to have someone else

who comes
and tries our technology

to see
if it can be generalized.

Is my arm getting warmer
because you’re wrapping it,

or does that have
heat in it?

-It does have heat in it.
-Oh, okay.

First thing we need,
if we’re gonna get Jay
to try the hand,

is we need to get
a custom-fit socket to his arm

that’s comfortable
and fits nice and snug.

You comfortable
when they do this?

This is the most awkward part
for me.

-Nah, it was kinda weird.
-Ah, yeah. Yeah.

I was 12 years old
when I lost my hand

and had a prosthetic
for six months,

and pretty much ever since then,
I haven’t used it,

and it’s been
close to 30 years now.

And there’s the impression
of your arm.

That’s way easier
than I thought it was gonna be.

That’s wild, yeah!

It may not be right for me,
but this is something

that could really, really
help people’s lives.

It would be really cool

to have a hand in helping
to develop the technology.

All right.

All right, ready?

Just slide it in.

Turn this… tighten.

[knob ratcheting]

How tight?

As tight as you can
before it really hurts…

-Oh, really?
-…because the tighter it is,

-the better reading we’ll see.

-Now we apply the probe…

…so it can
read your movements.

Now we also

have to work on the algorithm
and the machine learning,

and for this,
we will need you to train.


An able-bodied person,
when you move your finger,

you’re not thinking
about moving your finger,

you just do it, because
that’s how we’re hardwired,

but, honestly,
I don’t really remember

what it was like
to even have that hand.

[Weinberg] Even though
an amputee doesn’t have a thumb,

they still have the muscle.

You still have
some kind of memory

of how
you moved your fingers,

and you can think about
moving your phantom fingers,

and the muscles
would move accordingly,

and that’s exactly what we use
in order to, uh,

recreate the motion
and put it in a prosthetic arm.

But does Jay still remember
how to move fingers

that he didn’t have for,
I believe, 30 years ago?

Now we’ll run the model,

and you’ll be able
to control the hand.

[chuckles] You’re optimistic.
I’m crossing fingers.

Can I cross these fingers?

Is that…
is that an option yet?

Having Jay here for a day

and hoping to get him to a point

that he controls
finger by finger,

I’m a little concerned
that it will not work

in such a short period of time.

Okay. And…

-Yeah. You should try
each of the fingers.

All right, that’s the thumb…

-Oh, shit!

  Deep Learning: What is it good for?

All right, index…


Wow, I’m surprised.


[Barnes] Dude.

Five for five?

-[all cheering]
-All five of them!

-That’s wild.

All right,
let me do it again.

You’re a natural, man.

Doesn’t that feel crazy?

-Feels wild.

-I didn’t think
it’d be as good.
-I didn’t either.

He hit me in the back
after it worked, so…

That’s the first time.

It’s like a game-changer,
even in its infancy,

which is kind of insane,

because it can
only get better from there.

And it’s really cool
to play a small part in that.

Now we have two main goals.

you need to move your muscle
or your phantom finger,

and immediately see response,
so this is one direction
of research.

The other direction
is to make it more accurate.

Being able to type
on a keyboard,

use a computer mouse,
uh, open a water bottle,

things like that that
most people take for granted.

It’s kind of like a…
you know, sci-fi movie,
soon to be written.

-Give us five, right?

That’s awkward…
oh, robot to robot hand.


that was real, right?

If I find out you guys
had a button under that desk…

No, nah, I promise.
I promise.

What began as one man’s pursuit

to innovate music
through A.I. and robotics

unexpectedly became
something much greater.

A human body
cooperating with a bionic hand

is one thing…

but is it possible
to humanize a machine

to the point that
it truly seems lifelike?

Or is that still sci-fi,
and far, far away?

How did things go with Will?

[Sagar] You know, one of
the real challenges there

was just getting enough material

that we could actually
come back with.

We can’t possibly capture
somebody’s real personality,

you know, that’s impossible,

but in order
for it to really work,

it’s really important
to capture a feeling of Will.

Right, so…

[Downey] Will’s avatar
is actually Mark’s first go

at creating a digital copy
of a real person.

Wow, that’s looking
pretty good.

[Downey] He’s not just
trying to clone a human,

by any stretch,

but trying to create
an artificial stand-in

that’s somewhat believable.

Still, like most firsts,
it’s bumpy,

and it’s a cautious road
into the unknown.

[tech] A big challenge
that I’ve found

while I’ve been looking
through a lot of the images

is it seems that Will was
moving a lot during the shots.

[Colin Hodges] Okay. When
we’re building digital Will,

we have about eight artists
on our team

that come together

and pull all
of the different components

to bring together
this real-time character

that’s driven by
the artificial intelligence

to behave
like Will behaves.

Big challenges we’ve got

is how we create
Will’s personality.

Yeah. Like, the liveliness

and the energy
that he generates,

and the excitement.

The facial hair
was a challenge.

Because it’s so sparse,
it’s quite tricky to get

the hair separated
from the skin.

[Sagar] We have
to be able to synthesize

the sort of feel that
you’re interacting with Will.

So, Teah,
I’ve got some stuff to hear.

We’ve got 16 variations.

-16 variations?

[Sagar] We take the voice data
that we’ve got,

and then we can enable
the digital version of Will

to say all kinds
of different things.

[digital Will]
Here’s the forecast.

Yo, check out the forecast.

Yo, check out
the weather and shit.

Here’s the weather.
Check out the weather.

Yah, ’bout to make it rain!


[Sagar] That’s fantastic…
the words,

the delivery, emphasis…

Shows you just how complex
people react.

[] It’s awesome
where we are
in the world of tech.

Scary where we are,
as well.

My mind started thinking,
like, “Wait a second here.

Why am I doing this?

What’s the endgame?”

Because, eventually,
I won’t be around,

but it would.

[Downey] Will’s endgame
is more modest than Mark’s:

a beefed-up
Instagram following,
a virtual assistant,

anything that might help him
expand his creative outlets

or free up time
for more creative
or philanthropic pursuits.

Okay, so, here we go.

That’s looking really different.

It’s gonna be
really interesting,

because, you know,
it’s not every day

you get confronted
with your virtual self.


Does he feel
that this is like him?

If it’s not
representative of him

or if he doesn’t think
it’s authentic,

then he won’t want
to support it.

-What up, Mark?
-Oh, hey, how are you?

-You can see me, right?

Yo, wassup?
This is


This is the new version of you.

We can give him glasses there.

[ laughs]
That’s awesome.

I remember I had a pimple
on my face that day.
You captured it.

The good thing is,
it’s digital,

and we can remove it
really easily.

How come you didn’t
remove that? [laughs]

[Sagar] You can make him do
a variety of things.

Let’s play “Simon Says.”

Say, “I sound like a girl.”

I sound like a girl.

Say that
with a higher pitch.

[high voice]
I sound like a girl.

Raise your eyebrows.

Poke out your tongue.

[Will laughs]

Tell me about growing up
in Los Angeles.

I was born and raised
in Boyle Heights,

which is west
of east Los Angeles,

which is east of Hollywood.

Just east of downtown.

[] Should it
sound exactly like me?


Should it sound
a little bit robotic?

Yes. It should.

For my mom.

My mom should not be confused.

What’s your name?

[in Spanish] Mi nombre es Will.

[in English] You speak Spanish?

I don’t know.


I know it needs
some fine-tuning,

but the way
it’s looking so far

is mind-blowing.

Thanks, Mark.

Yeah, no worries.

[Sagar] How far
do you go down that path

until you can label it
a living…

a digital living character?

This raises some of
the deepest questions

in science
and philosophy, actually,

you know,
the nature of free will.

How do you actually

build a character
which is truly autonomous?


[Baby X giggles]

What is free will?
What does it take to do that?

Artificial Intelligence

is crucial
to the work we are doing,

to inspire, to surprise,

to push human creativity
and abilities

to uncharted domains.

[all cheering]


[playing drums]

[Downey] Free will…

…it’s something
we’ve been grappling with

for thousands of years,
from Aristotle to Descartes,

and will continue
to grapple with
for a thousand more.

Will we ever be able
to make an A.I.

that can think on its own?

A second, artificial version
of me

that is truly autonomous?

A Robert that can actually
think and feel on his own,

while this Robert here
takes a nap?

[engines roaring]


Well, when you consider

what human cooperation
has already accomplished…

a man on the moon…

decoding the human genome…

faraway galaxies…

I’d put my money
on dreamers like Mark and Gil

over the “Earth is flat” folks
any day.

Until then… nap time.

[man 1] Look at our world today.

Look at everything
we’ve created.

Artificial Intelligence
is gonna be

the technology that takes that
to the next level.

[man 2] Artificial Intelligence
can help us

to feed
the world’s population.

[man 3]
The fact that we can find
where famine might happen,

it’s mind-blowing.

These are conflict areas,

this is an area that we need
to look at protecting.

Then launch A.I.

[man 4]
We are going to release
the speed limit on your car.

Tim, can you hear me?

[man 5] With A.I.,

ideas are easy,
execution is hard.

What excites me the most
about where we might be going

is having more super-powers…

[firefighter] I got him!

…and A.I. is super-powers
for our mind.

[man 6]
Even though the limb
is synthetic materials,

it moves as if
it’s flesh and bone.

[woman 1]
You start to think
about a world

where you can prevent disease
before it happens.

[man 7]
A.I. can give us that answer

that we’ve been seeking
all along…

“Are we alone?”


[man 8] I love the idea
that there are passionate people

dedicating their time and energy

to making these things happen.


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